Rovira y Virgili
Educational guide 
School of Chemical Engineering
A A 
Nanoscience, Materials and Processes: Chemical Technology at the Frontier
Topic Sub-topic
Introduction Introduction and preliminary concepts.
Chapter 1. Optical lithography Concept of optical lithography. Conventional optical lithography. Resist. Instrumentation. Microelectronics as the driving force for miniaturization. Limits of optical lithography. Advanced optical lithography.
Chapter 2. Electron beam lithography. Introduction to electron beam lithography. Optical electron systems: electron-beam lithography (EBL). Solids-electron interactions. Beam exposition: Resists. Proximity effects. Process technology. Applications.
Chapter 3. Focussed ion beam technology. Basics of ion-beam-solid interactions:Interactions of the ions with a target:
-Implantation of the primary ions
-Damage of the structure
-Emission of secondary atoms or ions (sputtering)
-Emission of secondary electrons
-Emission of secondary electrons
-Deposition of molecules
-Ion channelling
FIB apparatus and Dual-Beam
Examples of FIB in the field of analysis
Examples of applications
Chapter 4. Non-conventional lithographyc techniques I: Atomic Force Microscopies. Lithographs based on near field microscopy: Introduction to scanning probe microscopy (SPM). Summary of scanning probe lithographic methods. Atomic manipulation (STM). Manipulation of objects and molecules. Indentation / local repository. Local oxidation nanolithography. Local dispensing of liquids and molecules (including Dip pen nanolithography). Nanofabrication in parallel.
Chapter 5. Non-conventional lithographyc techniques II: Embossing, imprinting and soft lithographies. Imprinting and embossing techniques. Thermoplastics: vitrious transition temperature. Hot embossing and NanoImprint Lithography (NIL). Curing of resists using UV light. Replica molding. Soft lithographies.
Chapter 6. Thin film deposition and growth.
Introduction. Thin film growth. Surface structure. Stages and processes. Epitaxy.
Deposition techniques. Physical techniques (PVD). Chemical techniques (CVD). PCVD techniques. Thin film characterization. In situ techniques. Ex situ techniques. Growth and Deposition Techniques.

Chapter 7. Thin film processing. Wet etching. Lift-off process. Plasma assisted etching. Reactive ion etching
Etching techniques. Dry etching. Vapour phase etching. Sputtering ion etching
Chapter 8. Global fabrication processes. Fabrication of complex structures using the techniques described in the previous topics. Proposed alternative and complementary techniques.