IDENTIFYING DATA 2012_13
Subject (*) YEASTS AND ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION Code 19605212
Study programme
Oenology (2010)
Cycle 2nd
Descriptors Credits Type Year Period
3 Optional Only annual
Language
Anglès
Department Bioquímica i Biotecnologia
Coordinator
CORDERO OTERO, RICARDO ROMÁN
E-mail josemanuel.guillamon@urv.cat
nicolasrozes@urv.cat
0
Lecturers
GUILLAMÓN NAVARRO, JOSÉ MANUEL
ROZÈS ., NICOLAS ANDRE LOUIS
CORDERO OTERO, RICARDO ROMÁN
Web
Relevant information This course aims to know the major role of yeast in alcoholic fermentation, the metabolic pathways for production of primary and secondary metabolites, and the main causes for problematic fermentations. Familiarize students with current research on wine yeast, and promote critical thinking and scientific curiosity in the various aspects of the course.

Competences
Type A Code Competences Specific
  Common
  AC2 Scientific and technical knowledge of the wine making processes.
  Professional
  Research
  AR1 Correct vision, understanding and knowledge of the wine science.
  AR2 Appropriate training to incorporate to a university department in order to pursue a PhD.
  AR3 Conception, planning, execution and direction of R+D+I projects.
  AR4 Excellence in the study and knowledge in the oenology research.
  AR5 The ability for exhaustive bibliographic searches in highly specialized oenological topics.
  AR6 Knowledge and understanding of the statistical analysis, graphic treatment of data and information management applied to the research in oenology.
  AR7 The presentation of results in a scientific way, according to the accepted standards.
  AR8 The critical evaluation of results of oenological research.
Type B Code Competences Transversal
  Common
  BC1 Creativity. Developing ideas and original projects.
  BC2 Work in an autonomous way with initiative.
  BC3 Flexibility. Availability to adapt to changing environments.
  BC4 Capacity to solve problems in an effective way.
  BC5 Transferability. Applying knowledge and skills in new or unknown surroundings and in multidisciplinary contexts related to its specific area.
  BC6 Ability to act with a critical and responsible spirit.
  BC8 Professional self-esteem. Understanding the value of the own knowledge and its impact in the society/community.
  BC9 Leadership.
  BC10 Team work and team management.
  BC11 Assertiveness. Ability to communicate in a fair and without ambiguities way to expert and non-expert audiences.
  BC12 Learning to learn.
  BC13 Planning and organization.
  BC14 Promote an attitude for quality.
  BC16 Decision taking.
Type C Code Competences Nuclear
  Common
  CC1 Command of the expression and the compression of foreign languages for the professional development derived from the postgraduate course.
  CC2 Use of specific tools of Information and Knowledge Technologies for the professional development derived from the postgraduate course.
  CC3 Development of a global prospect of the world in the specific area of the postgraduate.

Learning aims
Objectives Competences
a) To understand the role of yeast in alcoholic fermentation and relate it to potential problems that may arise throughout the process. AR1
AR4
AR5
AR6
AR8
AC2
BC1
BC2
BC3
BC4
BC5
BC6
BC12
BC14
CC1
CC2
CC3
b) To know the metabolic pathways of production of primary and secondary metabolites, and aromatic compounds of the wine. AR1
AR2
AR3
AR4
AR5
AR6
AR7
AR8
AC2
BC1
BC2
BC3
BC4
BC5
BC6
BC12
BC14
CC1
CC2
CC3
c) To familiarize students with current wine research. AR1
AR2
AR3
AR4
AR5
AR6
AR7
AR8
AC2
BC1
BC2
BC3
BC4
BC5
BC6
BC8
BC9
BC10
BC12
BC13
BC14
BC16
CC1
CC2
CC3
d) Strengthen the critical thinking toward solutions proposed by the wine industry to improve development of fermentation and / or final product. AR1
AR3
AR4
AR5
AR6
AR7
AR8
AC2
BC1
BC4
BC5
BC6
BC8
BC9
BC11
BC12
BC14
BC16
CC1
CC2
CC3
e) To promote curiosity for scientific research in those aspects related to this course. AR2
AR3
AR4
AR5
AR6
AR7
AR8
AC2
BC1
BC2
BC3
BC4
BC5
BC6
BC12
BC13
CC1
CC2
CC3

Contents
Topic Sub-topic
1. Introduction to yeast and alcoholic fermentation. General characteristics. Growth and adaptation to stressful conditions must / wine.
2. Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation and metabolic pathways of wine yeasts. Degradation of sugars and formation of byproducts from pyruvate, glycerol, acetate, ....
3. Nutritional requirements of yeast and its coverage in the must. Effect of additions of nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and the final product.


4. The aromatic compounds in wine: influence of yeast strain and fermentation conditions on the aromas of the wine.
5. Lipid metabolism of yeast during fermentation. Membrane composition of wine yeasts.

Planning
Methodologies  ::  Tests
  Competences (*) Class hours Hours outside the classroom (**) Total hours
Introductory activities
1 0 1
 
Lecture
16 8 24
Presentations / expositions
4 12 16
Debates
2 6 8
Assignments
1 24 25
 
Personal tuition
1 0 1
 
 
(*) On e-learning, hours of virtual attendance of the teacher.
(**) The information in the planning table is for guidance only and does not take into account the heterogeneity of the students.

Methodologies
Methodologies   ::  Guia de metodologies docents
  Description
Introductory activities General description of the course and of the
evaluation procedure
Lecture Development of contents of the course by the teachers of the course and guest speakers.
Presentations / expositions Presentations of scientific papers by students: 15 minutes exposure of the article, 5 minutes for discussion and questions.
The presentations will be individually or in groups of 2.
Debates Discussion and debate of scientific papers presented by students.
Assignments Presentation of a bibliographic review under the supervision of a tutor on a topic related to the subjects of Wine Biotechnology. This work consist in the presentation of the written part and in an oral presentation in front of a jury.
Personal tuition

Personalized attention
 
Presentations / expositions
Debates
Assignments
Lecture
Description
Students can contact teachers via email or during periods of scheduled interviews to answer any questions about the contents or about the tasks throughout the course.

Assessment
  Description Weight
Presentations / expositions Presentation of a scientific paper by students, individually or in groups of 2 people. Students must also answer questions about the paper selected that will be previously uploaded on Moodle. 50 %
Debates Participation in debates and discussions generated in class and during the presentation of scientific papers. 25 %
Assignments The bibliographic review is a personal work that is done under the supervision of a tutor. This work represents 25% of the grade of any of the subjects involved in the group of Wine Biotechnology. It consists of a written submission of the review, and an oral presentation of it. 25 %
 
Other comments and second call

Sources of information

Basic

Bibliografia general:

·  Bisson LF, Karpel JE, Ramakrishnan V, Joseph L. (2007) Functional genomics of wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Adv Food Nutr Res. 53: 65-121. Review

·   Fleet, G. H. 2002. Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology. Taylor & Francis, London

·   Lambrechs, M.G., Pretorius, I.S. (2000) Yeast and its importance to Wine Aroma. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 21: 97-129

·   Pretorius,I.S. (2000). Tailoring wine yeast for the new millennium: novel approaches to the ancient art of winemaking. Yeast 16, 675-729.

·   Ribereau-Gayon, P.,  D. Dubourdieu, and B. Doneche, A. Lonvaud (eds.). 2000. Handbook of Enology Volume 1: Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

·   Ribereau-Gayon, P., Y. Glories, A. Maugean, and D. Dubourdieu. (eds.). 2000. Handbook of Enology Volume 2: Microbiology of Wine, The Chemistry of Wine Stabilization and Treatments. John Wiley & Sons, New York

Complementary

·   Bauer,F.F., Pretorius,I.S. (2000). Yeast stress response and fermentation efficiency: how to survive the making of wine - a review. S.Afr.J.Enol.Vitic 21, 27-51.

·   Beltran, G.; Novo, M.; Rozès, N.; Mas, A.; Guillamón, J.M. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentations. FEMS Yeast Research, 4 (6): 625-632, 2004.

·   Beltran, G., B. Esteve-Zarzoso, N. Rozes, A. Mas, and J. M. Guillamon. Influence of the timing of nitrogen additions during synthetic grape must fermentations on fermentation kinetics and nitrogen consumption. J Agric. Food Chem, 53: 996-1002, 2005.

·   Beltran, G., N. Rozes, A. Mas, and J. M. Guillamon. Effect of low-temperature fermentation on yeast nitrogen metabolism. World J. Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006.

·   Bisson,L.F. (1991). Influence of Nitrogen on Yeast and Fermentation of Grapes. In: Proceedings of the International Sumposium on Nitrogen in Grapes and Wine, ed. J.M.RanzDavis, CA: Am. Soc. Enol. Vitic., 172-184.

·   Bisson,L.F. (1999). Stuck and sluggish fermentations. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 50, 107-119.

·   Henschke,P.A., Jiranek,V. (1992). Yeast. Metabolism of Nitrogen Compounds. In: Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology, ed. G.H.FleetChur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, 77-169.

·   Ivorra,C., Perez-Ortin,J.E., del Olmo,M. (1999). An inverse correlation between stress resistance and stuck fermentations in wine yeasts. A molecular study. Biotechnol.Bioeng. 64, 698-708.

·    Jiranek,V., Langridge,P., Henschke,P.A. (1991). Yeast Nitrogen Demand: Selection Criterion for Wine Yeasts for Fermenting Low Nitrogen Musts. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nitrogen in Grapes and Wine, ed. J.M.RanzDavis, CA: Am.Soc.Enol.Vitic., 266-269.

·    Magasanik,B., Kaiser,C.A. (2002). Nitrogen regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 290, 1-18.

·    Manginot,C., Roustan,J.L., Sablayrolles,J.M. (1998). Nitrogen demand of different yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. Importance of the stationary phase. Enzyme Microb.Technol. 23, 511-517.

·   Novo, M., G. Beltran, N. Rozes, J. M. Guillamon,  S. Sokol, V. LeBerre, J. Francois and A. Mas. Early transcriptional response of wine yeast after rehydratation: osmotic shock and metabolic activation. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006.

·   Ough,C.S. (1991). Influence of Nitrogen Compounds in Grapes in Ethyl Carbamate Formation in Wines. In: Proceedings of the International Sumposium on Nitrogen in Grapes and Wine, ed. J.M.RanzDavis, CA: Am.Soc.Enol.Vitic., 165-171.

·    Salmon, J.M. and Barre, P. (1998) Improvement of Nitrogen Assimilation and Fermentation Kinetics under Enological Conditions by Derepression of Alternative Nitrogen-Assimilatory Pathways in an Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 3831-3837.

·   ter Schure,E.G., van Riel,N.A., Verrips,C.T. (2000). The role of ammonia metabolism in nitrogen catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol.Rev. 24, 67-83.

·   Berthels NJ, RR Cordero Otero, FF Bauer, JM Thevelein, IS Pretorius (2004) Factors influencing fructose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast. FEMS Yeast Res 4: 683-689

·   Berthels NJ, RR Cordero Otero, FF Bauer, IS Pretorius, JM Thevelein, (2008) Correlation between glucose/fructose discrepancy and hexokinase properties in different Saccheromyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnology, 77 (5): 1083-91.

·   Molina AM, Swiegers JH, Varela C, Pretorius IS, Agosin E. (2007) Influence of wine fermentation temperature on the synthesis of yeast-derived volatile aroma compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 77: 675-87

 

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(*)The teaching guide is the document in which the URV publishes the information about all its courses. It is a public document and cannot be modified. Only in exceptional cases can it be revised by the competent agent or duly revised so that it is in line with current legislation.